For starters, it would certainly be helpful to know what are some pesticide characteristics. Understanding a pesticide’s chemical and physical properties enables the applicator to make more informed judgments regarding which active component and/or composition to employ in a given situation.
Common Pesticide Characteristics
1. Water solubility and instability
Water solubility and instability are two chemical properties that are of interest. The more water soluble a pesticide is, the more runoff and leaching it can cause.
The higher the potential for drift, the more unstable a pesticide is.
When a pesticide is extremely water soluble, it stays dissolved in water as it travels through the environment. Pesticides that are less water soluble deposit in the soil or on plants faster and are less prone to move around in the environment.
Because highly water soluble pesticides are more prone to travel around in the environment, they are more likely to pollute surrounding rivers, lakes, streams, wells, and storm sewers, particularly after heavy rains or excessive irrigation.
Highly water soluble insecticides are not a great option for application in sandy soils or locations where ground water tables are near the surface. This is due to the fact that dissolved pesticides have a higher possibility of entering groundwater.
Adsorption is a term used to describe how strongly a pesticide adheres to soil particles. It happens as a result of the chemical’s attraction to the soil particles.
Pesticides that are oil-soluble are more drawn to clay particles and organic materials in soil than pesticides that are water-soluble.
Pesticide molecules with a positive (+) charge are also strongly adsorbed to soil particles with a negative (-) charge. Pesticides that adsorb securely to soil particles are less likely to shift from the spray site than pesticides that do not.
Persistence refers to a pesticide’s ability to be alive and active in its initial form for an extended period of time before degrading. The half-life of a chemical is defined as the time it takes for 50% of the chemical to break down (degrade).
The pesticide is more lasting if its half-life is longer.
The amount of pesticide that persists in the environment following an application or spill is known as residue. When a residue offers long-term pest control and lowers the need for recurrent applications, it is advantageous.
Some persistent pesticides, on the other hand, can damage sensitive plants and animals, including humans. As a result, it’s critical to avoid persistent pesticides from spreading offsite due to poor handling, administration, drift, leaching, or runoff.
Persistent pesticides can leave illegal residues on rotational food and feed crops, in addition to posing a risk to people and non-target animals visiting a sprayed region. To safeguard customers, there are legal restrictions known as tolerances.
The amount of residue that can remain on products marketed for food or feed is limited. Look for remarks regarding the pesticide’s persistence and replanting limits on the label.
The endurance of a pesticide is related to its rate of degradation.
How Does Pesticide Move In The Environment
Many mechanisms influence a pesticide once it is released into the environment, whether through application, disposal, or spill. The persistence and mobility of pesticides, if any, as well as their ultimate fate, are determined by these mechanisms.
The fate processes have the potential to be beneficial. They can transport pesticides to their intended targets or eliminate pesticide residues that could be dangerous.
They can sometimes be harmful, resulting in diminished pest control, injury to nontarget plants and animals, and environmental consequences. The migration of pesticides into groundwater is a major source of worry nowadays.
Pesticides can leave the specified application site in a variety of ways, including through the air, water, soil grains, and on or in objects.
1. Air movement
The spread of a pesticide away from the application location caused by wind or air currents is known as drift. Pesticide users who mix, load, and administer pesticides outside are constantly mindful of how readily pesticides can disperse.
Spray droplets, vapors, dusts, solid particles, and even flying soil particles can all carry them.
2. Water movement
The majority of pesticide movement in water occurs via runoff (surface movement) or leaching (downward movement through the soil).
When too much pesticide is applied or spilt onto a surface, too much rain or irrigation water transports chemical through the soil offsite or into groundwater, or when extremely water-soluble or persistent pesticides are employed, runoff and leaching can occur.
3. Movement in objects
When pesticides are on or in items or organisms that travel offsite, they can spread from the application site. Pesticide residues may rub off on flooring, furniture, and laundry items, as well as on pets and people, when pesticide users bring or wear infected personal protection equipment, work attire, or other objects home.
Learning a thing or two about what are some pesticide characteristics will help you be a better pesticide owner. Maybe it lies more on the chemistry, but this guide has made the information more digestible for you!