The Main Objectives of Poultry Farming - Krostrade

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The Main Objectives of Poultry Farming

A poultry farm is where domesticated birds are raised. Poultry includes chickens, turkey, ducks, and geese. These animals are raised for their meat and eggs. Chickens are the most common bird raised for both meat and eggs. Chickens that are raised for their meat are called broilers. Chickens that are raised for their eggs are called laying hens or layers. Some special breeds of poultry are raised for shows and competitions.

Importance of poultry farming

 

Poultry farm activities

  • preparing the chicken house for the arrival of the chicks
  • feeding the chickens
  • monitoring the conditions inside the chicken houses, including temperature, humidity, and air quality
  • monitoring the feed and water lines to make sure they are providing the chicks with plenty of fresh water and chicken feed
  • monitoring the health of the chickens
  • cleaning the chicken houses or coops
  • collecting eggs (for laying hens)
  • loading chickens onto trucks for moving to chicken plants (for meat chickens)

The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago. This may have originally been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but later involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity. Domesticated chickens may have been used for cockfighting at first and quail kept for their songs, but soon it was realized how useful it was having a captive-bred source of food.

Selective breeding for fast growth, egg-laying ability, conformation, plumage, and docility took place over the centuries, and modern breeds often look very different from their wild ancestors. Although some birds are still kept in small flocks in extensive systems, most birds available in the market today are reared in intensive commercial enterprises.

Together with pig meat, poultry is one of the two most widely eaten types of meat globally, with over 70% of the meat supply in 2012 between them; poultry provides nutritionally beneficial food containing high-quality protein accompanied by a low proportion of fat. All poultry meat should be properly handled and sufficiently cooked in order to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

Types of Poultry

Chickens

Many different breeds of chickens have been developed for different purposes. For simplicity, you can place them into three general categories: Laying, meat-producing, and dual-purpose breeds.

Laying Breeds

These breeds are known for their egg-laying capacity. Popular laying breeds include the White Leghorn, Red Sex Link, and Black Sex Link breeds. A healthy hen will lay eggs for several years. Hens begin to lay at approximately 16–20 weeks of age and will lay between 20–23 dozen eggs the first year. At 14 months, laying hens usually begin to molt, the process by which they drop their old feathers and grow new ones. No eggs are laid during this period. After molting, hens will lay larger but fewer eggs per year (about 16–18 dozen).

Meat Breeds

Meat-producing breeds are very efficient at converting feed to meat, producing approximately one pound of body weight for every two pounds of feed they eat. A popular meat-producing breed is a Cornish breed. The Cornish game hen is a cross between the Cornish and the New Hampshire or Plymouth Rock breeds. Meat-producing chickens are broad-breasted and larger than the laying breeds. They grow and feather rapidly and will weigh five pounds or more at eight weeks. Broilers and fryers are butchered at 31/2 to 5 pounds, while a roaster is butchered at 6 to 8 pounds.

Dual-Purpose Breeds

The dual-purpose breed is the classic backyard chicken. These breeds are hardy, self-reliant, and fairly large-bodied. Most lay large brown-shelled eggs. Examples include Rhode Island Red and New Hampshire breeds. Some laying and dual-purpose hens tend to get broody, which means they will want to sit on and hatch eggs. Because broody hens don’t lay eggs, egg production will be affected. Consult with your local extension agent or other poultry experts to help you choose the right breeds.

Turkeys, Game Birds, and Other Poultry

Turkeys, geese, ducks, and pheasants are often raised as pets or for their egg and meat-producing qualities. They also can do terrific projects for children to learn responsibility and animal husbandry skills.

Breeds

There are more than a hundred breeds and more varieties of fowls. The fowls are classified based on their utility to man. They are meat type, egg type, dual type and games, and ornamental type. Based on their origin, there are four major exotic breeds of fowls. They are American breeds, Asiatic breeds, English breeds, and Mediterranean breeds. In addition to the above many of the indigenous breeds are also reared.

Farming methods

Poultry farming has now become very popular. It is recognized as an organized and scientifically based industry with tremendous employment potential. It plays an essential part in the rural economy of India. It provides a ready source of income to the cultivator. Besides meat and eggs, poultry supplies feathers and rich manure. The following factors are being taken into consideration for the growth of poultry farming.


1) small initial investment
2) availability of quality chicks
3) short generation interval
4) quick, assured and better returns compared to other livestock species
5) availability of trained manpower 6) better understanding and knowledge of the improved and scientific methods of feeding
7) management and health control

 

Rearing involves the following stages

Selection of eggs

Eggs meant for hatching and rearing must be selectedvery carefully. The following points should be considered during the selection of eggs.

 

  • The egg should be fertile.
  • Over-sized and small-sized eggs should not be selected instead of medium-sized should be preferred.
  • Dark-brown shelled eggs hatch earlier than light-brown shelled eggs.
  • Freshly laid eggs are preferred for rearing.


Incubation and hatching

The fertilized hen’s egg undergoes development during incubation and hatching processes. The fully formed bird emerges out of the egg after a hatching period of 21-22 days. During this period, the egg must obtain optimum temperature, humidity, and ventilation, etc. The maintenance of newly laid eggs in optimum condition till hatching is called incubation.

The incubation is of two types, namely natural incubation and artificial incubation. In the natural incubation method, the eggs are subjected to the care of the mother. A mother hen can incubate only a limited number of eggs. In artificial incubation, the eggs are maintained in a chamber (incubator), which stimulates the optimum environmental condition. In artificial incubation, more number of eggs can be incubated than natural incubation.

Brooding

Brooding is the care and management of young chickens for four to six weeks immediately after hatching. Like incubation, brooding also has natural and artificial methods. In the former, day-old chickens are left to the care of the mother, and in the latter, a temperature-controlled artificial brooder is used.

 

Factors involved in brooding

 

  1. Temperature – The hatched chicks are kept inside the incubator for about36 hours and then transferred to an artificial brooder. The optimum temperature is 330c during the first three days. During the subsequent weeks of brooding, the temperature is reduced by 30c each week till it reaches 210c.
  2. Ventilation –Fresh air movement is essential for good health and propergrowth of the chicks. Poor ventilation causes the accumulation of carbon monoxide, ammonia, and water vapor, which may lead to microbial infection in the chicken coops. 
  3. Floor space-Adequate floor space is to be provided for the properdevelopment of chicken. Minimum 500sq.cm of floor space per chickens is to be provided. Crowding of chickens leads to weak growth and induces cannibalistic tendencies amongst the birds.

Litter- The floor of the brood house is layered by beds of hay, rice husk, or sawdust, and this is called litter. The litter bed should be 5 to 7.5cm thick, and it must be kept dry.

Light- To keep the brood house free from infectious germs, the brood house must be well ventilated. Evenly distributed sunlight promotes the proper growth of the birds and the formation of vitamin D.

  1. 4.The housing of poultry-Open-sided poultry is popular in our country. The primary objective of providing housing to poultry is to protect them from the sun, rain, and predators and to provide comfort. Poultry houses should be well ventilated. It should be kept cool in summer and warm in winter. The floor of the poultry house should be moisture-proof, rat-proof, free from cracks, easily cleanable, and durable.

 

  1. Poultry feeding-Feeding of poultry birds is an essential part of rearing. The diet of chickens must contain an adequate amount of water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. The foodstuffs such as maize, barley, sorghums, wheat, oil cake, rice, etc. are to be given in standard requirements.

 

Poultry by-products

Poultry and poultry products are highly perishable. Hence, due attention has to be paid to the problems of processing, preservation, and marketing of poultry and poultry products for the benefit of producers, processors, and consumers. In a poultry processing unit, raw materials go as waste in the form of blood, feathers, heads, and feet. Hatchery waste includes infertile eggs, dead embryos, and hatchery unstable chicken. A large number of wet droppings are also available. Processing and using these by-products will reduce the cost of poultry production, solve the disposal problem, and minimize pollution hazard. A great deal of work has been done for processing these by-products into feather-meal, poultry by-products meal, hatchery by-products meal, eggshell meal, albumin flake, dried and poultry manure.

Poultry diseases

These birds are commonly affected by diseases such as Ranikhet, coccidiosis, fowl pox, and tick fever.

Importance of poultry farming

  1. The main benefit of poultry farming is, it doesn’t require high capital for starting. You need just basic capital to start raising poultry. And most of the poultry birds are not costly enough to start raising.
  2. Poultry farming doesn’t require a big space unless you are going to start commercially. You can easily raise some birds on your own backyard with one or numerous coops or cages. So, if you are
    interested in poultry farming, then you can easily do it on your own backyard with several birds.
  3. Commercial poultry farming businesses also ensure a high return of investment within a very short
    period. Some poultry birds like broiler chickens take a shorter duration of time to mature and generating profit.
  4. Poultry farm structures do not require high maintenance. You can minimize diseases and illness in
    poultry by following proper hygiene and care. Diseases are less in some poultry birds like quails,turkeys, etc.
  5. In most cases, you don’t need any license because almost all types of poultry birds are domestic.Although, if you need a license from the relevant authority, it is also easy for poultry.
  6. Poultry provides fresh and nutritious food and has a huge global demand. Global consumers of poultry products prefer them due to their nutrients and freshness. Poultry products are not much
    expensive and most of the people can afford those.
  7. Marketing poultry products is straightforward. There is an established market for poultry products inalmost all places in the world. So, you don’t have to think about marketing your products. You can
    easily sell the products in your nearest local market.
  8. Poultry farming creates income and employment opportunities for people. Unemployed educated youth can easily create a high income and employment opportunity for them by raising
    poultry commercially. Women and students can also do this business along with their daily activities.
  9. There are many more benefits of poultry farming, along with the benefits mentioned above. Startraising, and you will gradually learn everything.
  • Various poultry farming world watch institute methods described that “about 74% of total poultry meat and 68% of total poultry eggs produced from intensive poultry farming method. Free-range farming is the other alternative method of intensive poultry farming. The free-range farming method is used for a large number of poultry birds with high stocking density. There are some basic differences between intensive and free-range poultry farming. Intensive poultry farming method is a highly efficient system which saves, land, feed, labor, and other resources and increases production. In this system, the poultry farming environment is fully controlled by the farmer. So, it ensures continuous production throughout the year in any environment and seasons. Intensive poultry farming has some
    disadvantages too. Some people say the intensive system creates health risks, abuses the animals, and harms the environment. On the other hand, the free-range poultry farming method requires a large place for raising the birds, and the production is about the same as the intensive method. However, in the case of both intensive and free-range poultry farming methods, the
    producers must have to use nationally approved medications like antibiotics regularly to keep the poultry birds free from diseases.

 

Layer poultry farming


The poultry birds which are raised for egg production are called layer poultry. Commercial hen generally starts laying eggs at the age of 12-20 weeks. They start laying eggs regularly at their 25 weeks of age.

After 70-72 weeks of age, egg production of layer poultry gets reduced. For commercial layer poultry farming, producers generally keep the hens for 12 months from their first laying period. And then sell them for slaughter purposes.

Although chickens naturally survive for more than six years. For re-invigorating egg-laying, the hens are forcemolted in some countries. For commercial egg laying poultry farming systems, the environmental conditions are often automatically controlled by the producers.

For a simple example, the presence of light helps the bird to lay eggs earlier. So, the producers shouldprovide a more lightening period to increase the probability of beginning laying eggs. The egg-laying birds lay more eggs in warmer months than the cold months.

So, keepingthe temperature of the room moderate will be very helpful for better egg production. Somecommercial egg-laying chicken breeds can produce more than 300 eggs a year.

Methodology


Much uncertainty exists about the most useful method to value a poultry farm. The purpose of the research is to determine the valuation method that is the most appropriate and reliable for the valuation of a broiler farm.

A sample of 15 out of the 196 contract broiler farm valuations was selected in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces in South Africa. The size of the broiler houses was at least 10 000 sq ft. Broiler units with a minimum of four houses were taken into account.

Data was gathered using assessments of previous valuations as well as physical valuations done in the field and analyzed statistically. Figures were tested for normality; differences between the overall means were determined by the analysis of variance using the ANOVA test; the correlation coefficients between the two different methods and the dependable variable were determined, and regression analysis was fitted.

The differences in the ratio of the variance between the two sets of data used indicate that the cost approach has a smaller variation around the mean. On the other hand, the income approach suggests a more realistic approach because the basis is the net margin and not the norm for replacement and depreciation. Although differences do exist, a strong correlation exists between the two methods.

What is the aim of poultry farming?


To give the opportunity for trainees to learn about raising chickens for their meat and eggs.
To increase its production to meet the increasing demand for poultry meat. To provide a learning environment for the indigenous poultry farmer.

By now, I hope you have all your answers about poultry farming.

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Rabbit Breeding Age Limit

Rabbit Breeding Age Limit: Pointers To Remember

One of the important points to note when it comes to rabbitry is the rabbit breeding age limit. Knowing the age limit will enable you to make sure that the final output is of the high quality, and that you are taking into consideration the key milestones in rabbit breeding. 

Rabbit housing is also important. Their shelter will affect their activities, and it must have the ambience and environment that these creatures need.

Various Types Of Rabbits

There are several types of rabbits in the industry, and we’ll get you with the rundown in this edition of the post. 

1. American Rabbit 

First-time rabbit owners and breeders may want to have the American rabbit since this is a fantastic choice because of their sweet personalities. Beware though among children since this age group is not recommended to care of the rabbits since they tend to be shy and may bite if not cared for in the right way. 

2. Belgian Hare Rabbit

Next up is the Belgian Hare Rabbit, a very historic breed that traces back its existence from the 1700s. Being one of the oldest breeds, these rabbits thrive best outdoors in right spacing and food sources. Their personality is considered nervous, and may easily intimidate people if they do not announce their presence.

3. Blanc de Hotot

From the name itself, the Blanc de Hotot rabbit comes from France, and also known as the “black eyeliner” rabbit. Children can own them, and with their distinctive brushing requirements, it is always great and fun to be with them. 

4. Californian Rabbits

These Californian rabbits are known to be among the best rabbits to breed when it comes to having them for meats. These rabbits are hybrids of Chinchilla and Himalayan. And with its dense fur, it lets them enjoy both the indoors and outdoors. These rabbits love playtime and cuddling time. 

5. Checkered Giant Rabbit

On the other hand, the checkered giant rabbits are creatures at 13 pounds, perfect to be cared for by adults. As for their personality, these rabbits are considered very independent and less affectionate, but still can be gentle. You can easily spot these rabbits from the rest since they have spots on the nose.

6. Dutch Rabbit

A rabbit that has been developed in England during the 19th century, the Dutch rabbit is also very popular. They are extremely sociable so keeping them too much inside their cage may not be a great idea. They are also very easygoing, and children are known to care for them. 

7. English Lop

Then, you have the English lop, friendly rabbits that have made them earn their nickname “the dog of the rabbit world.” They have the title of being characterized by having long ears, and it comes to no surprise that they require big levels of maintenance. Aside from these, their ears must also be examined regularly and their nail care kept at its finest. 

8. English Spot

From afar, the English spot rabbits seem like it is frowning. But this bunny is close to every family, and they deserve to be brought outside their cages from time to time. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Can A Rabbit Be Too Old To Breed?

When it comes to the rabbit breeding age limit, is there a rabbit too old to breed? Experts advise against breeding old rabbits. They are saying that breeding older rabbits may be prone to heart attack and may just waste on your resources. The average breeding age cut off is until four years old. 

What Is The Oldest Age A Rabbit Can Get Pregnant?

It could be at a maximum of nine months. Small female rabbit breeds can get pregnant between four to five months, while the male rabbits are ready to breed at six months. Medium-sized female rabbits may start to be bred at five to six months, with the medium bucks beginning at seven months.

Furthermore, the heavier breed does are prepared at six to eight months, while the heavy bucks are considered sexually mature at nine months. 

Rabbit Breeding Age Limit: Can A Rabbit Get Pregnant At 3 Months Old?

Well, not exactly at three months old, but smaller rabbit breeds may get pregnant at three and a half years old.

Can I Breed My Rabbit At 4 Months?

Yes, but the ideal time to breed the rabbit begins in their fifth month. Four months can be considered quite immature for these rabbits and the owners, they might be given with outcomes that are not quite ideal for their requirements. 

How Do I Know If My Rabbit Mate Is Successful?

There are indicators to tell that rabbit mating has been successful. For instance, you can tell from the fall-off and the grunt. You may also notice that the buck becomes all that macho, and may thump on the cage’s floor several times. On occasion, bucks may fire and nonetheless, miss. 

Considering the right rabbit breeding age limit, and following these guidelines, you can tell whether the mating has been successful or not. For other breeders, this has been a success if the buck falls off backward or to one side. However, if he just humps the female breed, and does not fall off, the mating may not have been carried out.

Achieve Your Rabbitry Success With Krostrade.com 

With Krostrade.com, you can have the resources you need to breed your rabbits right. Knowing about the rabbit breeding age limit makes this venture a highly successful one. 

Understand that your rabbit is also part of the family, and during the time they are under your care, they must be bred well. This is to consider their color, size, fur type, personality, and more of their traits.

Getting into the rabbit meat processing, and preparing the breed for processing for meat is a different story. Having the right resources and the know-how on the rabbit breeding age limit will fulfill what you want for these breeds.

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